Community acquired pneumonia / Neumonía adquirida en la comunidad.

Diagnosis will be based on the clinical presentation and the results from a plain chest x-ray. There are very sensitive and specific symptoms and signs that will form a “constellation” most associated with pneumonia. X-ray will then confirm the suspicion. Although, it must be said that older patients my have different signs and symptoms like…

Infective endocarditis diagnostic criteria / Endocarditis infecciosa, criterios diagnósticos.

Criteria can be quickly summarized in: Major clinical criteria (or pathological criteria) – Evidence of either valve damage or evidence of microorganisms within the bloodstream: Positive ecocardiography for infective endocarditis: vegetation, abscess, dehiscence of prosthetic valve. 2 separated positive blood cultures for typical IE microorganisms, or a single one for Cox. Burnetti. Minor clinical criteria…

Thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolytic anemia:

It’s all about damage of endothelium of small vessels (micro-angio-pathy). This will cause red blood cells to “crash into” inflamed walls, break (hemolytic anemia) and trigger clot formation (thrombotic). Anemia will cause hypoxemia and then thrombosis leads to reduced and impaired blood flow, tissue hypoxia, infarction and a suggestive clinical picture: petechiae, purpura, pain, organ…