SARS-CoV-2 disease, AKA COVID-19

Every since the first appearance of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, now known as the SARs-CoV-2, back in Wuhan on late December 2019, many descriptive studies have been published by different scientific magazines and websites. The following illustration is a super summary of most data that has been reported regarding the SARS-CoV-2 disease: from its mild…

Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

The following illustration presents a very quick review of VZV infection causing Herpes Zoster, also known as “shingles”. Quick reminder about pain management: Do not forget that the most effective strategy to prevent pain complications is early treatment of infection with antiviral drugs. If pain is already established, the recommendation is treating the acute phase…

Pediatrics: Bronchiolitis vs. Croup

While the first is a disease of bronchioles and lower airway with resulting wheezing and crakles, the second one is inflammation of the larynx, causing stridor and braking cough. Both are caused mainly by a viral infection and both may present at the ED with rhinorrea, coughing, fever and signs of increased work of breathing….

Myelitis vs. Guillain Barré vs. MS

Let’s take a very quick review of these demyelinating diseases. Patient comes to the ED because of limb weakness and sensory alterations. If there’s a clearly defined level with no cranial nerve and no brainstem symptoms, we may be in front of transverse myelitis. If there is in fact oculomotor weakness with dyplopia or weakness…

Meralgia paresthetica

Check the following illustrations out. A patient comes for your help due to thigh pain. It hurts in a clearly demarcate area on the anterior and lateral region of her thigh. Pain is of a burning quality. Numbness is also felt. No motor abnormalities. Patient is overweight and has been wearing a very tight belt…

Bell’s Palsy

The following illustrations present a summary of what’s known as Bell’s Palsy. First described by Charles Bell in 1830, the diseased is defined as a peripheral facial paralysis due to many causes. The name “idiopathic facial palsy” may not be a synonym, since after a proper investigation, a cause is mostly found. Reference: uptodate.com. I…

Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, part I

The following illustrations are a summary of some of the causes of upper GI in adults. Ulcer related, erosive and variceal (portal hypertensive related and non portal HT related) are included: The second part will include vascular causes, such as Deulafoy lesion and GAVE (gastric antral vascular ectasia). See ya next time! Augusto Saldaña M.D.

Infective endocarditis diagnostic criteria / Endocarditis infecciosa, criterios diagnósticos.

Criteria can be quickly summarized in: Major clinical criteria (or pathological criteria) – Evidence of either valve damage or evidence of microorganisms within the bloodstream: Positive ecocardiography for infective endocarditis: vegetation, abscess, dehiscence of prosthetic valve. 2 separated positive blood cultures for typical IE microorganisms, or a single one for Cox. Burnetti. Minor clinical criteria…

Acute calculous cholecystitis / Colecistitis aguda calculosa.

Acute cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) results from injury from a gallstone, like impactation or cystic duct obstruction. Sometimes inflammation occurs without gallstone disease due to infection of bile (acalculous cholecystitis). The main difference between a patient who complains from abdominal pain and suffers from uncomplicated gallstone disease and acute cholecystitis is the evidence of…