Community acquired pneumonia / Neumonía adquirida en la comunidad.

Diagnosis will be based on the clinical presentation and the results from a plain chest x-ray. There are very sensitive and specific symptoms and signs that will form a “constellation” most associated with pneumonia. X-ray will then confirm the suspicion. Although, it must be said that older patients my have different signs and symptoms like…

Gallstone disease in adults / Cólico biliar en el adulto.

Abdominal pain is very common in the emergency department. Plenty of times patients complain of pain, but the physical examination results completely normal. Because of WHERE it hurts (upper right quadrant), suspicion of gallstone diseases rises. Things get tricky when lab results are normal, and the possibility of a final diagnosis in the ED disappears…

Cardiac tamponade / Taponamiento cardiaco.

A major complication of trauma and pericarditis, and a feared cause of hypotension and obstructive shock, cardiac tamponade occurs when there’s fluid in the pericardial space. This may be from effusion (pericarditis, serositis) or blood, such as in thoracic trauma. As the heart is “imprisoned” within its own pericardium, diastole is restricted, and ultimately systole…

Management of COPD exacerbations

Patients with a chronic pulmonary obstructive disease will suffer exacerbations from time to time. It’s defined as an increase in symptoms beyond the normal day to day variability that then leads to a change in medication. It may also be defined as a worsening of the usual dyspnea, wheezing, tight chest feeling, coughing and expectoration…

Lower extremity vascular disease:

Peripheral artery disease vs. deep venous thrombosis: PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE (PAD).- Due to arterial stenosis. Associated with heavy and prolonged tobacco use and atherosclerotic disease. Reduce blood flow will cause signs and symptoms such as weak pulses, pallor, cold skin, ulceration and of course lower extremity pain that increases with exertion up to the point…